I think my favourite red curry is this one which comes with roasted duck. In Thai it is called "gaeng phet pet yang". In Thai restaurants it can be quite expensive to order. So, it is useful to know how to cook. The ingredients will vary a bit from book to book. I like to add pineapple and I hear some people add rambutan. In the picture below, you can see: sweet basil, roasted duck, palm sugar, kaffir lime leaves, plum tomatoes, pea eggplants and red curry paste in the middle. The ingredients of the paste include: red chilli, galangal, lemon grass, red shallots, garlic, kaffir skin, cilantro seeds and shrimp paste.
Heat the oil in a wok and add the red curry paste. Gradually add coconut milk to form a runny paste. Continue this process until it is fragrant and a red oil surfaces. Next comes the roasted pork. In preference, de-bone the duck first. In many Thai restaurants there always seem to be more bone than meat. Cook for another minute or so. You can add more coconut milk if it dries out too much. Add the plum tomatoes, torn kaffir lime leaves and the pea eggplants. Turn off the heat and prepare the seasoning. For this you add a mixture of fish sauce and palm sugar. Our red curry paste bought ready made at the market was a bit too salty. They probably added too much shrimp paste. So, we didn't put in so much fish sauce. If it is too salty, try adding more sugar, coconut and/or stock. Finish with a handful of sweet basil which you should carefully stir in. However, not all recipes call for basil. We decorated the dish with thinly sliced red spur chilli and a sprig of sweet basil.
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วันพฤหัสบดีที่ 24 กันยายน พ.ศ. 2552
This is a quick and easy dish to make. The holy basil has a "hot peppery" taste, but if you can't get it then the standard european basil is a reasonable substitute, though you should add a little freshly ground black pepper in this case.
2 tablespoons chopped garlic
2 tablespoons chopped shallots
2 tablespoons chopped mixed red and green chiles (prik ki nu)
1 teaspoon green peppercorns, whole.
¼ cup fish sauce
2 tablespoons palm sugar
1 cup coarsely chopped holy basil leaves (bai gaprao)
1 cup sliced onion (any mixture of 'spanish' onions, red onions, shallots and spring onions can be used).
1 pound ground or minced beef.
My wife chops the beef with a pair of cleavers, and I can't bear to watch... you can of course use a meat grinder or a food processor.
The garlic, shallots, peppers and peppercorns are ground together in a mortar and pestle or a food processor. In a hot wok, with a little cooking oil, briefly stir fry this paste to bring out the flavour and aroma. Add the remaining ingredients, except the onion, and continue to stir until the beef is cooked through.
Add the onions, mix thoroughly, and serve.
For luncheon pad bai kaprao can be served over plain rice, or over a fried egg or egg crepe, placed on the rice. For dinner it goes well with the hot and sour tom yum soups, as well as curries and other Thai food.
It can be made with chopped pork or chicken, though of course the flavours are quite different. You can also experiment with replacing the meat with hard tofu marinated in a mixture of sweet soy, fish sauce and ground ginger, say, or a vegetable mix of your choice (I like to mix broccoli and cauliflower florets, with julienned carrots and wing beans), to make a vegetarian pad bai kaprao.
Vegetable oil 1/3 cup
Garlic, chopped 1 tbsp.
Pressed beancurd, sliced into small pieces 1/4 cup
Prawns, fresh and peeled 6 oz
Chanburi rice linguini, soaked in water and drained 2 cups (packed)
Fish sauce 1 - 2 tbsp.
Coconut sugar 1 - 2 tsp.
Unsalted, toasted peanuts, chopped 2 tbsp.
Thai chili flakes (prik pon) 1 tsp.
White vinegar or tamarind pulp juice 1 - 2 tbsp.
Bean sprouts, roots picked 1 cup
Omelet julienne 1
Fresh red spur chili peppers, julienne 1 tbsp.
Spring onion, julienne 1 tbsp.
Fresh lime wedges 2
1. For best results, this dish should be cooked in a wok, Prepare all your ingredients in advance and have them ready beside you. Heat up the oil in a wok until almost smoking.
2. Add the chopped garlic and pressed beancurd to the wok. Stir-fry until cooked but not browned; add the prawns and stir quickly.
3. Prawns cook very fast so do not over cook them. Once the prawns are slightly white add the flat thin rice noodle from Chanburi province. This noodle has to be soaked in water to make it pliable but not soggy, and drained before use.
4. While stir-frying the noodles, season this dish with fish sauce, coconut sugar, chili flakes and vinegar. The liquid from the prawns and seasoning sauces will make the noodle soft yet " al dente" . Add peanuts and toss to mix well.
5. Finally add the bean sprouts and quickly toss in the hot wok to warm them up but do not over cook them. Garnish the dish on top with a julienne thin omelet, red spur chili peppers and julienne spring onions with a few fresh bean sprouts and a lime wedge on the side.
This dish is very famous in Thailand and the world over. It's a great lunch item and our national pasta dish. Chanburi noodles are easily found in most Asian grocery stores, they come dry packed in a bundle wrapped in plastic. Ask your Thai or Asian grocer for phat thai noodles. Eating and seasoning tips: Westerners usually season their pasta dishes with salt, pepper and parmesan cheese but each phat thai dish is seasoned by the diner with fish sauce for saltiness, sugar for sweetness, lime juice for sourness, chili flakes for spiciness and peanuts for crunchiness.
Chicken 500 g.
Kaeng Khiao Wan chilli paste 200 g.
Coconut milk 1,000 g.
Coconut cream 250 g.
Ma-kheua phuang 400 g.
Green & red chilli 30 g.
Sweet basil 40 g.
Kaffir lime leaves 2 g.
Palm sugar 30 g.
Fish sauce 80 g.
Chilli paste Ingredient Hot chilli 30 g.
Chilli 10 g.
Lemon grass 15 g.
Galangal 7 g.
Kaffir lime skin 8 g.
Garlic 60 g.
Coriander seed 5 g.
Shallot 40 g.
Cumin 2 g.
Pepper 3 g.
Coriander root 5 g.
Sweet basil 20 g.
Shrimp paste 10 g.
Salt 5 g.
Oil 150 g.
* 30 grams = 1oz. , 1kilogram = 2.24 lbs.
* Serve size 8 persons
1.Pound all the mixture for chilli paste, fry with oil and take aside
2.Fry chilli paste with a bit coconut cream until fragrant, add chicken and fry rather done
3.Add coconut milk
4.Season with sugar, fish sauce, ma-kheua phuang, stir until done, add coconut cream, chilli, kaffir lime leaves and sweet basil
1 pound medium-size shrimp
1 stalk of lemon grass, lightly pounded and cut into 2 inches long
3 lime leaves
1 teaspoon of salt
2 tablespoons of nam pla
3 tablespoons of lime juice
6 prik ki nu, pounded lightly
4 cups of water
½ cup of roughly cut cilantro leaves
Remove the shrimp shell but leave the tails (for look). Then cut open the back of each shrimp to remove the veins. Clean the mushrooms with water and dry them well before wedging each into quarters. Bring water to boil, then add lemon grass, lime leaves, and shrimps. When the shrimps turn pink, add mushrooms and salts. Remove the pot from heat after boil. Add fishsauce, lime juice, and hot peppers to taste.
Serve the soup while still hot in individual soup cups and top each cup with pieces of cilantro.
วันพุธที่ 23 กันยายน พ.ศ. 2552
- Pleng Korat
Pleng Korat, a form of folk tradition of the Thai Korat, is considered an alternate song between male and female that requires a great deal of singers' ability, knowledge, resourcefulness as well as wisdom. Its unique words and rhythm reflect very distinctly the culture of the Thai Korat. In this thesis, the researcher bases his study of Pleng Korat on the theoretical framework of Ethnomusicology in which forms, contents and procedures of both lyrics and rhythm are analyzed. The objective of the study is to observe the development of Pleng Korat from the past up to the present with the focus on ‘original' Pleng Korat which has become less and less popular these days. From the study, it was found that Pleng Korat has undergone some development and that its forms, contents and procedures have changed considerably. While singers' creativity as well as listeners' taste constitute one reason, the other reason results from socio-cultural changes within the Thai Korat community. More varieties of Pleng Korat are created to accommodate the needs of the community. Pleng Korat Kae Bon, which is sung to fulfil one's vow or to make a votive offering, and Pleng Korat Sing, a mixture of typical Pleng Korat and modern folk, are two examples of well-known new-age Pleng Korat currently being performed. Regardless of the changes, Pleng Korat still preserves its distinguished lyrical and rhythmic characteristics, especially the Korat verse and “O” rhythm. However, whether Pleng Korat continues to be popular or not depends greatly on each singer's knowledge as well as the particular artist's own techniques of singing.
"The music of Thailand reflects its geographic position at the intersection of China, India, Indonesia and Cambodia, and reflects trade routes that have historically included Persia, Africa, Greece and Rome. Thai musical instruments are varied and reflect ancient influence from far afield - including the klong thap and khim (Persian origin), the jakhe (Indian origin), the klong jin (Chinese origin), and the klong kaek (Indonesian origin).
Though Thailand was never colonized by Western powers, pop music and other forms of European and American music have become extremely influential. The two most popular styles of traditional Thai music are luk thung and mor lam; the latter in particular has close affinities with the Music of Laos.
Aside from the Thai, ethnic minorities such as the Lao, Lawa, Hmong, Akha, Khmer, Lisu, Karen and Lahu peoples have retained traditional musical forms
Traditional Thai classical repertoire is anonymous, handed down through an oral tradition of performance in which the names of composers (if, indeed, pieces were historically created by single authors) are not known. However, since the beginning of the modern Bangkok period, composers' names have been known and, since around the turn of the century, many major composers have recorded their works in notation. Musicians, however, imagine these compositions and notations as generic forms which are realized in full in idiosyncratic variations and improvisations in the context of performance. While the composer Luang Pradit Phairau (1881–1954) used localized forms of cipher (number) notation, other composers such as Montri Tramote (1908–1995) used standard western staff notation. Several members of the Thai royal family have been deeply involved in composition, including King Prajatipok (Rama VII, 1883–1941) and King Bhumibol Adulyadej (1927–), whose compositions have been more often for jazz bands than classical Thai ensembles.
Classical Thai music is heterophonic - the instruments either play the melody or mark the form. There are no harmony instruments. Instrumentalists improvise idiomatically around the central melody. Rhythmically and metrically Thai music is steady in tempo, regular in pulse, divisive, in simple duple meter, without swing, with little syncopation (p.3, 39), and with the emphasis on the final beat of a measure or group of pulses and phrase (p.41), as opposed to the first as in European-influenced music. The Thai scale includes seven tempered notes, instead of a mixture of tones and semitones.
วันอังคารที่ 22 กันยายน พ.ศ. 2552
The Thai in the central plain prefer food with smooth and lasting taste with a touch of sweetness. The way the food is served is an art in itself. The dinning table is often decorated with carved vegetable and fruit. Cuisine of the central plain sometimes combines the best of the foods from various regions.
Rice is strictly the staple food for every family in the central region. There are on the average three to five dishes to go with rice. Typical are soup, gang som (chili vegetable soup), gang phed (Thai red curry), tom yam (spiced soup) and so on. Chili fried meat dishes are for instances, pad phed, panaeng, masaman, fried ginger and green pepper, Thai salads or yam are yam tua pu, salad with sliced roasted beef. Dishes that regular feature fin a Thai meal of the central region are vegetable, namprik (chili sauce), platoo (local herring), and perhaps omelette (Thai style), fried beef of roasted pork. On the whole Thai meal should meet protein and vitamin requirements with plenty to spare.
In addition to such choices as bananas, oranges, limes, grapes and watermelons,Amphawa Floating Market’s wide range of fresh fruit also includes others that may not be as familiar to outsiders. Among them are the following.
Has translucent, yellow-orange flesh, refreshing and slightly tart; often eaten in pickled form, squeezed for juice, or as a snack with crushed chilli and salt.
2.Custard Apple (Noina)
Resembles a small green hand grenade, filled with white, sweet-scented flesh: eaten ripe, in coconut milk, or made into candy: also makes delicious ice cream.
Regarded by many as the king of Thai fruits, with creamy yellow flesh encased in a large spiny shell: numerous different varieties, those with smaller seeds generally being regarded as the best: usually eaten raw accompanied by sticky rice and coconut milk but also made into preserves and candy.
Greenish-yellow fruit with white aromatic flesh: often eaten in its hard unripened form with a spiced dip of salt and sugar.
Largest of all cultivated fruits, with a spiny shell and yellow or yellow-orange flesh: eaten raw as a snack, as a sweet with sticky rice, and cooked as an ingredient in vegetable curries.
Small fruit with a tough but thin skin and translucent white or pinkish flesh that is sweet, succulent, and has a distinctive musky flavour, somewhat similar to a lychee: usually eaten raw with sticky rice and coconut milk or over crushed ice.
Found in at least ten varieties in Thailand, all different from those of Hawaii and tropical America: oblong in shape with either dark green or golden yellow skin and whitish or yellow flesh: traditionally eaten ripe with sticky rice and coconut milk but also pickled, made into delicious preserves or juice, or used in traditional medicines. Thais also like slices of raw green mango dipped into Nam Pla Wan.
8.Mangosteen (Mang Khut)
Sometimes called the queen of tropical fruits, with a dark purple skin and white, sweet, scented flesh divided into segments: eaten raw, poured into drinks, made into tarts, or added to seafood curries.
Largest of the citrus fruits, weighing up to one kilogram, similar to a grapefruit but much sweeter, can be eaten fresh for breakfast or as a dessert, used as an ingredient in numerous salads, or squeezed to make a refreshing drink.
10. Sapodilla (Lamut)
Oval-shaped fruit with brown skin and sweet, succulent reddish-brown flesh: eaten as a dessert with sprinkling of lime juice or boiled into syrup and made into jams and sweetmeats.
11. Sweet Tamarind (Makham Wan)
A tough brown pod with sweet dark brown flesh surrounding several seeds: made into sweets, candied fruits, or concentrated pulp: pods in pulp form may be soaked in water and pressed through a sieve to produce tamarind water: used in soups or as a sauce.
วันจันทร์ที่ 21 กันยายน พ.ศ. 2552
Chang-Eng Siamese Twins Memorial and Boat Museum are located in Tambon Lat Yai on Ekkachai Road, around 4 km from City Hall. The statues were built in memory of Chang-Eng, the Siamese twins who made Thailand famous around the world. They stand in the middle of a broad ground decorated with trees and flowering plants. There is a large pond in the foreground. Furthermore, the biography of Chang-Eng, the Siamese twins, is on display in a hall. Chang-Eng, the Siamese twins were born on 11 May 1811, in Samut Songkhram. During 1828-1829, Captain Coffin and Hunter came to Mae Klong to conduct trade and they encountered the Siamese twins. They were allowed to take the Siam twins back with them to America and the United Kingdom for shows in public places where the life stories of Chang-Eng who were joined to each other at the chest were repeated again and again. Both of them lived a normal life to the age of 63. The name of ‘Siamese twins’ made Thailand famous worldwide.
วันศุกร์ที่ 11 กันยายน พ.ศ. 2552
One of the crafts that can well express national culture and creativeness is textiles as these have for quite a long time been indispensable. In Thailand, fabric weaving has been practised since prehistoric times and rural society has regarded it as a women's duty during spare time after work in the fields. The development of both colours and designs of the finished products have been a result of the weavers' own imagination and a long heritage as well as some other factors. In the old days fabrics were a kind of status symbol; there were fabrics for the common people to be used either everyday or on special occasions like merit-making, traditional rituals or important festivities, fabrics for the upper class including the king and the royal family and finally those for the Buddhist monks.
Thai fabrics have a great number of designs, usually distinguished by region. Northern women have been considered very skillful weavers, especially of cotton fabrics. They started by weaving for domestic use and then produced for export as well. It is said that during the twentieth and twenty-first century BE the northern part of Thailand which was known as the Laan Na Kingdom produced many good fabrics for sale in neighbouring states, some of which were Pha Si Chan Khao, Pha Si Chan Daeng, Pha Si Dok Champa etc.. During the Sukhothai Period, about 700 years ago, besides the ordinary coloured ones, a five-colour fabric was produced, commonly known as Pha Benjarong. Different groups of people then produced their own fabrics; court people for example would make fabrics for themselves and ordered some fabrics from abroad. As history has it, silk began to be imported from China during that time. Besides clothing, people began to use fabrics for other purposes such as home decoration (long flags) and other household items (pillows, mattresses, curtains). Fabrics during the Ayudhya Kingdom which was about 400 years ago assumed another important role besides materials for clothing and decoration-they were used as money. They were sometimes given by the king instead of money for rewards and often for the annual remuneration, hence the term Pha Wad Raipee (pha = fabric or cloth, wad = pension raipee = annual).
These were generally special types of fabrics, usually embroidered. Trouser-shaped cloths called Pha Jong krabane, loin cloth or Pha khaoma and women's wraps called Sabai began to appear as daily clothing.At the present time, weaving is done mostly in the northern and north-eastern regions. Their products differ due to the influence of regional beliefs as well as the traditions of minority groups. Northerners like to weave both cotton and silk with raised patterns or yok dok (brocade) whereas north-easterners namely the Lao minority groups prefer producing mudmee fabrics using the ikat or resist dying technique. The Lao Song minority is, however, the exception as their preference is that of the northerners. Fabrics produced locally are grouped into three categories according to their weaving methods: Plain cloths, chintz and brocades.
From the Cocoon to Yarn
Silk is produced by various insects, but by far the largest quantity comes from the silkworm 'Bombyx Mori'. This is the silk worm, which feeds on mulberry leaves and forms a cocoon of Silk before pupating. The threads from several cocoons are subsequently unwound together to form a single strand of raw silk. This fine thread is the basic component of all Silk yarn and fabric. Some of the gum, which the silkworm uses to hold the cocoon together, remains to assist the delicate fibre during processing. It is subsequently washed aw
Warping: this means preparing the warp by rolling all the warp-yarns on to a beam, under the same tension, strictly parallel to each other and in a certain order.
Pirning: the weft (cross-wise) yarns are put on to a pirn, which is then placed inside the shuttle in order to lay the weft-yarn between the warp-yarns.
In the past twenty years, enormous strides have been made in improving not only the machines involved in the preparation of weaving, but in the loom itself. Non-stop weaving has been made possible by the introduction of automatic pirnchanging. And there are now shuttleless looms, (more properly called weaving machines). These machines use lances, or projectiles, or a jet of compressed air to shoot the weft-yarn between the warp-yarns, instead of the traditional shuttle, and at vastly higher speeds. This increased automation also meant that one weaving-worker can now look after 20 looms at the same time, instead of only 4 traditional looms. This has consequently led to much greater yield and productivity.
Some of the modern weaving machines are large enough to weave fabrics 3 metres wide. In addition to their greater speeds these machines also offer the advantage for the weaver of enabling him to divide this large width into several smaller widths, for example 3 times 90 centimetres.
Although modem weaving machinery has made enormous progress, certain specific types of silk can only be made on ordinary looms, as they are too complex to be woven on highly-automated machines, running at very high speeds. This is notably the case for high-novelty fabrics, and even more so for the reproduction of traditional fabrics used for wallcoverings, upholstery etc.
Many of these fabrics are produced on Jacquard looms, called after their Lyonnais inventor, who in 1801 perfected the existing system of patternweaving, by the use of perforated cards. The Jacquard loom makes it possible to weave intricate and multi-coloured patterns directly into the fabric, and thus create highly elaborate and handsome fabrics.
As soon as they come off the loom, the fabrics are thoroughly inspected so as to eliminate any defects that may have occurred during weaving.
There are two main types of silk fabrics, each with its own specific characteristics:
The first category includes those fabrics made from yarns which have been dyed beforehand: these fabrics are known as yarn-dyed or dyed-woven (eg, taffeta, duchess satin, many pattern-woven fabrics)
The second type includes all those fabrics that are dyed after weaving, known as piece-dyed fabrics (eg, crepes, twills, etc).
In both cases, yarn-dyed or piece-dyed, the dyeing operation is always preceded by boiling-off, a process in which the gum (sericin) is removed from the fibre. This results in a weight loss of 20-25%. In some cases, this loss is made up for by the addition of vegetable or mineral substances, which the fibre absorbs in order to have better "body" when this is required for certain end-uses.
Up until about 1815-1830, only yarn-dyed fabrics were woven, as piece-dyeing was still unknown. Yarn-dyeing still uses the same basic technique, which consists of soaking the skeins of raw silk in tanks containing the dyestuff.
Piece-dyeing, introduced in Lyon, became an industrial process around 1849, and for a long time remained a speciality of Lyon Region. There are several different processes of piece-dyeing. The fabric can be fed into the dye-bath through two cylinders, or it can be fixed to a round jig which is immersed in the bath. While the fabric is attached to the jig, the dyestuff is fixed, and then the fabric is rinsed and dried.
Printing consists of transferring a pattern to the fabric. Nowadays, printing is carried out in the following Block-printing: wooden blocks are engraved with the pattern to be printed, and the raised parts of the block transfer the dyestuff to the fabrics. However, this process is slow and laborious, and today is only used on a very small scale for handicraft fabrics.
Roller-printing: the roller-printing method was invented by the Scotsman Bell in 1785. The fabric is printed mechanically by passing through two rollers which have been engraved with the required design. This method is ideally suited to very long runs, and so is not used very often for silk fabrics.
Screen-printing: sometimes knows as "a' la lyonnaise", because the city of Lyon seems to have been the first to industrialise this process around 1850. A fine gauze is stretched tightly over a metal frame, and the design to be reproduced is transferred to the gauze. By a photochemical process, the "pores" in the gauze are partially blocked off allowing the dyestuff to be squeezed through the gauze where the design is to be printed. This process enables several colours to be printed one after the other, each colour requiring one frame. The design is printed on to a white fabric, or on to fabrics already dyed with a base colour. In this case, the base colour is not fixed, so that the colours printed through the screen destroy and replace the base colour. This type of printing is particularly intended for high-novelty fabrics, which are usually produced in relatively small quantities. It is, therefore, very widely used in printing silk fabrics.
With the exception of pattern-weavers, all fabrics have to be finished. It is the finisher who gives satin its shimmering suppleness and its "hand". Finishing gives a fabric the desired appearance and feel. There are numerous finishing processes, physical and chemical. Finishing includes treatments such as creaseproofing, water-proofing, fire-proofing, etc.
วันพฤหัสบดีที่ 10 กันยายน พ.ศ. 2552
In Chiang Mai, an unusual part of the Loi Krathong celebration is the Yi Peng Festival or the ritual of the lighted balloon. After a day of merit-making, the people launch colourful hot air paper balloons into the sky, bearing their troubles away. In the evening, all homes and shops are decorated with beautiful lanterns. Later, traditional Krathongs are also floated on the river and other
In November some may wonder what is going on in Thailand when seeing travel magazine ads, posters at your hotel of Thai girls dressing in traditional Thai clothing with a beautiful floating object. That's a sign indicating that Loy Krathong is on its way. In Thai Loy means to float and Krathong means a circular floating object with decoration of banana leaves, flowers, a candle and incense sticks. All these are related to Loy Krathong, an event which does not occur on the same date every year; instead it counts on the full moon night of the twelfth lunar month. In this year 2007 it will be held on November 24, a romantic night. People look forward to going out and launching Krathongs together to predict the romance future by the direction the Krathongs float. However, this season is also good for strengthening relationship in family.